While Marine Protected Areas (MPA) are spreading globally, only a few have robust compliance and enforcement mechanisms in place while the majority may not be much more than paper tigers.
Since 1961 the annual global growth in fish consumption has been twice as high as population growth, demonstrating that the fisheries and aquaculture sector is crucial in meeting FAO’s goal of a world without hunger and malnutrition says Josè Graziano da Silva, former FAO Director-General. Yet, aquaculture and in particular shrimp aquaculture have had a hugely detrimental effect on coastal ecosystems. In Indonesia, this form of food production has damaged or degraded around 70 % of its mangrove forests according to the Global Mangrove Alliance.
On the current trajectory of plastic pollution and overfishing, there will be one tonne of plastic for every three tonnes of fish in the ocean by 2025. The most affected people are those in marginalised rural communities, especially in Southeast Asia, which is a marine biodiversity hotspot and contributes more than 60 % of the world`s marine debris.
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